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Technical Papers

The following technical papers concerning Attritor mills and our other grinding and dispersing equipment are in PDF format.


  1. Attritor Grinding and Dispersing Equipment – Presented at Kent State University, Department of Rheology, Seminar on Dispersions of Pigments and Resins in Fluid Media, updated January 2019, Kent, Ohio
  2. Attrition Dry Milling In Continuous And Batch Modes – Presented at the Powder & Bulk Solids Conference/Exhibition, updated June 2019, Chicago, Illinois
  3. Choose the Right Grinding Mill – As seen in Chemical Processing.
  4. Media Milling Advances – As seen in Ceramic Industry.

Attritor Grinding In General – Papers Presented by Union Process

  1. Effect of Si3N4 Addition on the Morphological and Structural Properties of the 316L Stainless Steel for Nuclear Applications – As seen in Resolution and Discovery.
  2. Fine Grinding of High-Value-Added Industrial Minerals by Attrition Milling – Presented at Les Mineraux Industriels Materiaux de Annees 90, March 1989, Quebec, Canada
  3. The Fine Grinding of Ceramics with Attritors – Presented at the Shanghai Symposium/ Exhibition on New Ceramics, April 1991, Shanghai, China
  4. Attrition Mill Fine Grinding of Advanced Ceramic Powders – Presented at the Advanced Ceramics Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, February 1986
  5. Stirred Ball Mills – Presented at Clemson University, College of Engineering, Clemson, South Carolina, February 1990
  6. Attritor Mills & Media for Chocolate Processing Update – Presented at the Pennsylvania Manufacturing Confectioners’ Assoc., Hershey, Pennsylvania, April 1986
  7. The Processing of Tungsten Carbide Powder with the Q (Circulation) Attritor – Presented at the American Society for Metals Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, December 1984
  8. Attrition Mill Grinding of Refractories – Presented at the Ceramic Manufacturers’ and Suppliers’ Workshop, Louisville, Kentucky, September 1994
  9. Attritor and Ferrite Grinding Applications – Presented to the Materials Research Laboratories, Taiwan, ROC, November 1994
  10. Versatility of Attrition Milling (Wet or Dry Process) – Presented at Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania, June 1995
  11. Attritor Grinding Mills and New Developments – Presented at the Toronto Society for Coatings Technology, April 1997
  12. Small Media Milling in Continuous or Circulation Mode – Presented at the International Coatings Exposition (formerly Paint Show), October 15, 1998
  13. Attritors and Thermal Spray Powder Applications – Presented at the Thermal Spray Symposium, Cincinnati, Ohio November 1999
  14. Attritors and Ball Mills – How They Work – Presented at the Philadelphia Training Conference, May 2000 and FSCT St. Louis Symposium, June 1, 2005
  15. Attritor Grinding Mills and New Developments – Presented at the Western Coatings Federation, April 2000 and International Coatings Exposition (ICE 2000), October 2000
  16. Media MIlling for Chemical Applications – Presented at the Chemical Industries Expo, New York, October 2001
  17. Advances in Small Media Milling – Presented at the Western Coatings Federation Dinner Meetings, January 2005 and CSCT “Sink or Swim” Conference – Akron University, Akron, Ohio, May 23, 2005

Attritors Used for Testing and Research

  1. Structural Properties Of Nano- Steel Powders Prepared By Powder Metallurgy
  2. Preparation Of Nano-oxide Dispersed Steel Powders By Powder Metallurgy
  3. Degassing Behavior of Nanostructured Al and Its Composites
  4. Nano-hydroxyapatite Preparation from Biogenic Raw Materials
  5. The Effect of Milling Time on the Sintering Kinetics of Si3n4 Based Nanocomposites
  6. Preparation Aand Characterization of Hydroxyapatite from Eggshell
  7. Size Effects in Micro- and Nanocarbon added C/SI3N4 Composite Prepared by Hot Pressing
  8. Mechanical Alloying – by J.S. Benjamin
  9. Enhanced Processing of Perovskite Pb(Mg1/3)03 Relaxors Through Understanding the Surface Chemistry of the Component Powders – by T.R. Shrout, B. Jones, J.V. Biggers and J.H. Adair
  10. Attritor Milling WC + 6% Co: Effects on Powder Characteristics and Compaction Behaviour – by S.J. Mashl and D.W. Smith
  11. Energy Input Monitoring During Attritor Milling – by R. Goodson, F. Larson, L. Sheehan
  12. Correlating WC Grain Size Analysis Techniques with Attritor Mill Monitoring in Cemented Carbides – by R. Goodson, L. Sheehanm, F. Larson
  13. Demonstration of SiN Attritor Mill – by Dr. Herbel
  14. Dissolution of Activated Titanium Slag in Dilute Sulfuric Acid – F. Habashi
  15. Activation of Titanium Slag by Attrition Grinding – F. Habashi
  16. Grinding Kinetics and Media Wear During Attrition Milling – by Sheila Padden & James Reed, Alfred University
  17. Processing of Mechanically Alloyed Amorphous Co85Zr15 – by H. Kimura, M. Kimura, T. Ban
  18. Development of an Extremely High Energy Ball Mill for Solid State Amorphizing Transformations – by H. Kimura, M. Kimura, F. Takada
  19. Micronized High Purity Alumina – by J.L. Sepulveda, P. Cortesi, A. Ramirez
  20. Research and Development Report: Production of Fine Particulate Ultra High Molecular Weight Poly(ethylene) for Biological Response Studies – H.D. Leigh, P. Taylor, A. Swaney, J. Black, Clemson Univ. 1992
  21. Milling Dynamics: Attritor Dynamics: Results of a Cinematographic Study – R.W. Rydin, D. Maurice,T.H. Courtney, University of Delaware 1992
  22. Size Effects in Micro- and Nanocarbon added C/Si3N4 Composite Prepared by Hot Pressing – C.S.Balázsi, F.S. Cinar, I. Addemir, Zs. Kasztovszky, Zs. Kövér, F. Wéber, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2005

Articles Written about Attritors & Bead Mills in Industry

  1. Influence of Graphene and Graphene Oxide on Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Si3N4 Ceramic Matrix– by MDPI “Ceramics” 2020
  2. Grinding Glazes: A Comparison of Milling Methods – by Southern Devices “Ceramic Industry” October 1993
  3. High Speed Stirred Ball Mills Save Mineral Supplier Money – by The Milwhite Co., “Powder and Bulk Engineering, December 1993
  4. Expanding Into New Markets … – Hall Chemical, “Powder and Bulk Engineering, January 1989
  5. Stirred Ball Mill Technology Boosts Process Efficiency – NCR, “Chemical Processing”, June 1992
  6. Opening New Doors in Advanced Ceramics – Diamonite “Ceramic Industry”, November 1992
  7. Achieving Process Control Through Improved Grinding Techniques for Ferrite Materials – Jeff Bruce, Steward Inc. presented to The American Ceramic Society, June 1994